Beowulf- A Poem Analysis (Essay Sample)

Beowulf: A Poem Analysis (Essay Sample) Beowulf: A Poem Analysis Conclusively, Beowulf could perhaps be considered as the highest achievement that the Old English literature had ever had. It is a heroic poem which deals with the events and significant historical facts of the sixth century. It is as well the longest poem written during the Old English era and the language used was in Anglo-Saxon England, which was before the Norman Conquest. It originally did not have a title, but later on was named after the famous Scandinavian hero, Beowulf. The story is about the adventures and battles of the hero, Beowulf, against a monster named Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and a dragon guarding a bountiful mass of treasure. More than the story itself, of course, Beowulf, as depicted in a larger context, is an embodiment of a warrior’s heart – strength, courage, reputation, and loyalty. To start with, let us discuss how loyalty was portrayed in the poem. Loyalty is one of the major themes that was embodied in the poem, particularly in the character of Beowulf himself. It was his guiding virtue from the beginning until the end. An example would be that of his loyalty to Hrothgar. In the original text, Beowulf owed his life to Hrothgar when the latter protected him and his father by providing them shelter during a feud; hence, Beowulf was devoted to him. Another example would be that when he refused to be the king after King Hygelac died. He could have become the king since the throne was offered to him by Queen Hygd. However, he refused and instead, helped and guided the young prince, Heardred in his journey to becoming the king. Beowulf was clearly more loyal than ambitious for having to refuse such a great opportunity. In addition, loyalty

American Culture (Essay Sample)

American Culture (Essay Sample) American Culture American culture is in all dimensions western and it has been influenced and derived from diverse ethnic communities which inhabit the land. The diverse ethnic communities have contributed to a distinctive flavor of their culture. Initially, native Americans inhabited the land before European powers came to colonize their land and eventually took it over. Over they course of history, the colonial culture blended with Native American culture and other immigrants culture to create the American culture. Through centuries of coexistence with people from all over the world American culture has continuously been evolving to match the changing times. Notably, the main cultures inhabiting the land are the Native Americans, Latin Americans, Africans and Asians. Language is a key element in describing a culture. Whilst in America almost 300 languages are spoken, English is the most widely used language. According to (Zimmermann, 2017), over 90% of Americans speak or understand some little bit of English in which they can express themselves or communicate with other people. Whilst there is no official language in the United States, some states like Hawaii have two official languages; Hawaiian and English. However, due to large numbers of English speakers, English has become de facto language of communication. Other languages spoken in America include Germany, Arabic, French, Italian, Hindi, Chinese among others. These languages come with slight variation of the American culture which is a slight mixture of their native culture with American culture. Their accent is also noticeable while they speak English and other aspects of how they live is conspicuous. American people also have various accents of their respective states which partly stems from the way of living in those respective states. Over the years, English has evolved to become the present day American English which is slightly

Amy Tan, Mother Tongue (Essay Sample)

Amy Tan, Mother Tongue (Essay Sample) Amy Tan “Mother Tongue” Language forms our identity because it defines who we are based on how we interact with people. Unfortunately, some people use language to gauge our levels of intelligence. Many people are discriminated based on how they express themselves, especially if they cannot speak English fluently. In an article titled “Mother Tongue” by Amy Tan, she talks about her experiences as an immigrant, highlighting how people who speak broken English are unconsciously categorized by those who speak English fluently. Amy’s article shows how challenging it is to be raised by a parent who speaks limited English because one can easily face discrimination. Tan, being a fiction author, recalls the experiences that helped her identify different types of English. She also explores the role played by her mother in shaping her language that later even influenced her career choice. Amy highlights several situations portraying how discrimination occurs when the other person cannot understand broken English. She quotes examples of broken English her family used to communicate. Having been raised by her mother, Amy realized how one’s perception of the world is based on the type of language taught at home. Tan noticed how people perceive others differently based on the language used. The author was fascinated by language which became part of her daily experience as a writer. Tan keenly observed the different types of English in several instances like when giving a talk about her book and her mother was part of her audience; she realizes that she been using academic language from the book which is different from the language they used at home. She notices the different types of English when her mother says “not waste money that way”; this is an example of broken English she was used

Child Abuse (Essay Sample)

Child Abuse (Essay Sample) Child Abuse Child abuse is the endangerment of a child in the form of physical, sexual, emotional negative impact or neglect inflicted on the child by another person typically, a caregiver. It is a global issue which threatens the future of our race and by extension the planet. Children are the future and each person bears a responsibility to care for them to ensure the continuity of humanity. These statistics cast a shadow on the optimism of our race and a threat to any child anywhere on the planet should be a concern to everyone. Prompt interventions must be instituted to protect the most vulnerable members of the society. Child abuse is primarily anchored on sexual, emotional, physical and neglect perspectives and this article explores these parameters in depth. Physical abuse Physical child abuse is any non-accidental physical injury of a child. The perpetrator intentionally hurts the child to inflict pain. Physical abuse in some cases causes the death of the child or permanent physical and mental disabilities. In some cases, physical child abuse is legal and perpetrators are encouraged and protected by the law. Typically, this is the shocking picture in some countries where corporal punishment in schools is lawful and in extreme cases female genital mutilation (FGM) in the name of culture. These heinous acts leave permanent scars on the victims who are more likely to become defiant or drug abusers in their later lives. Children who experience child abuse are nine times more likely to engage in criminal activities whilst at least two-thirds of people under treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children. In some cases, the perpetrators are parents or close relatives who take advantage of the children’s innocence. The society and environment also stack the odds against

Atomic Bombs (Essay Sample)

Atomic Bombs (Essay Sample) Atomic Bombs There are several weapons that are used by soldiers to fight. The most commonly used weapon is the AK 47 riffle. All soldiers are trained to use this weapon because it can be carried easily during the war. Countries have fought over several things. It may be to become dominant, to acquire and control resources or to make sure that the country becomes a superpower. These driving factors have made them develop various ways and weapons that could Essen their war. Countries like the United States of America and Japan have gone ahead to make nuclear bombs and atomic bombs that could easily kill everyone. These weapons have a great impact since it can destroy the whole nation or even a region depending on the size. This makes atomic bombs more dangerous than any the weapons. Atomic bombs are weapons that use nuclear reactors. The first atomic bombs were first developed by the scientist during the world war two. Since then it has been used twice in the world. The United States and Japan are the only ones who have used atomic bombs. Atomic bombs have a huge impact on the body of human beings. It is advisable that it should not be used again because of the negative results. Nuclear scientists made a discovery about the atomic bombs in the year 1938. It was after the discovery of nuclear fission. Radioactive materials contain atoms; these atoms split into lighter atoms which later release nuclear energy. These discoveries led to the development of huge nuclear bombs as well as the atomic bombs. Atomic bombs get their energy from nuclear reactors and the process of nuclear fission. This essay seeks to describe the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the cold war, crisis in Cuba and the

A Beautiful Mind (Essay Sample)

A Beautiful Mind (Essay Sample) A Beautiful Mind A beautiful mind is a 2001 movie based on John Nash’s life and on the novel of the same name by Sylvia Nasar. The drama movie was directed by Ron Hoard and the screenplay written by Akiva Goldsman. John Nash was born on 13th June, 1928 and died on 23rd May 2015. He was a brilliant mathematician who made axiomatic influences to partial difference equations, game theory, as well as differential geometry. He won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, the Abel Prize, and the John von Neumann Theory Prize. The movie is about schizophrenia and how it affects how a person functions as well as the relationship with their family. Russell Crowe plays John Nash while Jennifer Connelly plays John’s wife, Alicia Larde. The family begins with Nash as he begins his profession at Princeton University as a mathematics graduate student (Thacker, 2013). He spends a lot of his time trying to discover an equation that would revolutionize mathematics. Halfway through the film, the audience that some of the places as well as conditions in the movie are just illusions in Nash’s “beautiful” mind. The essay will analyze schizophrenia in relation to the movie and John’s life. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious and severe mental disorder which affects how a person feels, thinks and behaves. It affects how about one percent of the population. It happens in late puberty or early adulthood, between 16 and 30. In most cases, the symptoms occur at a younger age for men than women (Parekh, 2017). It requires lifelong treatment and is only diagnosed after other illnesses have been ruled out. It is unusual for people to get schizophrenia after the age of 45 or below the age of 12. Schizophrenia is considered a

Causes And Effects Of Earthquakes (Essay Sample)

Causes And Effects Of Earthquakes (Essay Sample) Causes and Effects of Earthquakes An earthquake also referred to as tremor or quake is the trembling that happens on the Earth’s surface as a result of sudden energy release to the Earth lithosphere, therefore, developing seismic waves. Earthquakes vary in sizes, for instance, there are quakes that are weak and are not enough to be felt by people or even destroy cities. However, there are large earthquakes that shake and cause ground displacement. Earthquakes can also result in landslides, property destruction as well as ground rapture. The largest earthquake is referred to as main-shock and is always followed by aftershocks that are experienced after the main shock. However, the world’s largest earthquake was experienced in the 1960 near Valdivia, South Chile and had around 9.5 magnitudes (Braitenberg and Rabinovich, 2017). This quake is also known as the ‘Great Chilean Earthquake’ that left nearly 2 million people homeless and thousands of buildings destroyed (Braitenberg and Rabinovich, 2017). Accordingly, it is imperative to understand both causes as well as impacts of earthquakes. Causes of Earthquakes Earthquakes happen as a result of various factors such as natural calamities and human activities. One of the natural causes of earthquakes is tectonic movements. The Tectonic Movements Tectonic movements are the disturbance that happens inside the earth. However, this movement creates forces that develop changes on the surface of the earth and therefore physical features like rift valleys, plateaus and mountains are created (Betbeder‐Matibet, 2008). Many of the disastrous earthquakes happen because of the tectonic forces that create pressure and tension where stress begins to accumulate inside the earth. To explain this, the Earth contains four main layers that comprise; the inner core, outer core, crest, as well as the mantle. The crust as well as the upper

Causes Of American Revolution (Essay Sample)

Causes Of American Revolution (Essay Sample) Causes of American Revolution Our class teacher used to give us various stories about the past. Old stories concerning life and how we came into existence were majorly narrated to us. One time he gave a brief history about America for father. One student asked a question, why did our fore father rebel and help revolution in America yet we are all human beings. After the teacher giving the correct answer I came to realize that indeed there are several aspects that the founding fathers saw that made them rebel. American Revolution is not just for academic purposes but one should understand that, it is that revolution that gave birth to the new, modern America of today. The revolution was mainly by rebelling the British colonies and British administration. It started when the British government came with certain regulations which did not favor the Americans. Initially the founding fathers were actually contented with the British colonies but what transpired to the revolution is the repeated refusal of the American citizens representing any American colony, harsh taxes imposed, and the governing rule which became a major reason for revolution. However there are also certain causes that transpired to the rebellion, but majorly the British administration were mean and self-centered. This essay ‘the causes of revolution in America’ seeks to describe the harsh imposition of taxes, the restriction and freedom of location, government control, corruption and the criminal injustices and the justice system. Harsh Taxation One of the major causes that led our founding fathers to rebel the British administration is the imposition of harsh tax on commodities such as tea and stamps without any representation of their own American citizen in parliament (History, 2017). For many years before revolution began, the British parliament passed harsh

Affirmative Action (Essay Sample)

Affirmative Action (Essay Sample) Affirmative Action Many people dream of living in America to achieve the American dream because America is perceived to be the land of opportunities. However, equality is one of the most challenging factors limiting people from access basic services like education. Ethnic minority groups face inequality, limiting their ability to access such services as education. Affirmative action is one of the government strategies to promote equality among different nationalities and inspire freedom and diversity. For years, the negative effects of Affirmative Action policies have seen several cases brought to court to determine the true meaning of equality. Through affirmative action, the government believed that everyone would access equal opportunities. Several institutions, especially colleges and universities have taken a big leap in addressing equality within the learning institutions. Currently, ethnic minority groups can access many learning institutions thanks to the affirmative action policies. Affirmative action is viewed to be ineffective in addressing equality as white students oppose affirmative action because it discourages hard-working students and it is unfair to the students who work hard to get good grades. While other students support affirmative action because through such policies, ethnic minorities have achieved their career dreams. The Fisher V. University of Texas case is an example of several cases seeking to oppose affirmative action. In the case, the plaintiff argues that affirmative action stigmatizes recipients, making them feel less deserving and less qualified. Affirmative action policies were established to integrate all ethnic minority groups within the various institutions. Many people support the affirmative action because they believe everyone deserves to be treated fairly. However, a majority of the white population opposes this policy because they believe that it is a reverse form of discrimination. The Supreme Court ruling about race being a factor to consider when universities admit

Bless Me, Ultima (Essay Sample)

Bless Me, Ultima (Essay Sample) Bless Me, Ultima When I was young, I used to read various novels written by various people. Up to now, the urge to continue reading is in me because of the structure of the novel, the themes in the novel as well as the symbolic features. In the recent years, a research was conducted and it was discovered that Germany produces a huger number of novels than the Arabian countries. This discovery shows that novels are still in demand. However, the old-written novels have stacked in peoples mind. Such a novel is one called ‘Bless Me, Ultima’ written by Anaya Rudolf. Since its publication in the year 1972, it has been widely read especially in Chicago. Teachers across high school level, college level, and university level have adopted it to become one of their favorite novels for students. Rudolf started to write the novel in the year in 1963, since then it was not published because of the combination of the two language English and Spanish. However, at some point, it was awarded as the best in the national literary. It was this point when it was published and then the autobiography was produced later. ‘Bless me, Ultima’ leaves the reader with two conclusions: the first is that Ultima is a witch and works for the devil himself. The second is that Ultima is a person who walks on earth performing miracles through the use of her magic that saves people’s lives. Everybody in the novel who hears the word ‘witch’ clearly thinks of the works of the devil. However, it is not the case because people have judged different actions and people; later on, they find that they are wrong. Both tomorrow’s daughter and Ultima use magic and power which are the same, but

Beowulf: A Poem Analysis (Essay Sample)

Beowulf: A Poem Analysis

Conclusively, Beowulf could perhaps be considered as the highest achievement that the Old English literature had ever had. It is a heroic poem which deals with the events and significant historical facts of the sixth century. It is as well the longest poem written during the Old English era and the language used was in Anglo-Saxon England, which was before the Norman Conquest. It originally did not have a title, but later on was named after the famous Scandinavian hero, Beowulf. The story is about the adventures and battles of the hero, Beowulf, against a monster named Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and a dragon guarding a bountiful mass of treasure. More than the story itself, of course, Beowulf, as depicted in a larger context, is an embodiment of a warrior’s heart – strength, courage, reputation, and loyalty.

To start with, let us discuss how loyalty was portrayed in the poem. Loyalty is one of the major themes that was embodied in the poem, particularly in the character of Beowulf himself. It was his guiding virtue from the beginning until the end. An example would be that of his loyalty to Hrothgar. In the original text, Beowulf owed his life to Hrothgar when the latter protected him and his father by providing them shelter during a feud; hence, Beowulf was devoted to him. Another example would be that when he refused to be the king after King Hygelac died. He could have become the king since the throne was offered to him by Queen Hygd. However, he refused and instead, helped and guided the young prince, Heardred in his journey to becoming the king. Beowulf was clearly more loyal than ambitious for having to refuse such a great opportunity. In addition, loyalty was also portrayed by one of Beowulf’s finest men when he went on to fight with the dragon. This warrior’s name was Wiglaf, who later on succeeded on the throne. In the poem, Wiglaf was the only one who stood by the king when the latter decided that he would take on the dragon. Out of all 11 men, only one stayed by the king’s side and helped him and stood beside him when the old man fought the dragon until his last breath. Clearly, a great deal of respect, bravery, and loyalty was exhibited by Wiglaf.

Another theme that was mainly portrayed in the poem is reputation. It was clearly established even from the beginning that Beowulf was concerned about how the world would see him. He always introduced himself as one who had so many achievements in life. He enumerated all the successful battles that he had won detailing the process of how he ruled such battles. He wanted people to know how much of a warrior he was. It was his most valuable possession – reputation. A scene on the poem which exhibited such value was when he took of Grendel’s head and brought it with him, instead of taking all the treasures that were there. Likewise, when Unferth insulted him telling everyone that he lost in a seven-day swimming contest and therefore it was impossible for him to defeat Grendel, Beowulf defended his reputation by stating that he lost not because he was weak, but because he swam with Breca for five nights. Since Breca was a weakling, his conscience could not take leaving the boy. Thus, he stayed with him. When the rough seas drove them apart, however, he had to kill nine sea monsters in order for him to go ashore. Beowulf, as described in the poem, was the man with a great reputation. Although he was a master of strength and courage in times of war, he was also a man of good deeds – a true quality of a hero, a warrior, and a leader.

In a general sense, perhaps it would be just to say that all warriors are brave, strong, and courageous. Thus, it would suffice to say that Beowulf was indeed a warrior with all these qualities. It was shown all throughout the poem that he possessed the qualities not just of a great warrior, but also an epic hero. His strength was incomparable and his courageousness was the epitome of a warrior’s brave heart. There is no doubt that he was indeed a strong and powerful one. However, while he possessed such qualities, they were not his major concerns. As previously mentioned, Beowulf valued reputation and loyalty more than anything else. For him, the test of strength and bravery is nothing compared to reputation and loyalty. He wanted popularity and good relations, not praise and fake glory. Nevertheless, it is also undeniable that what brought him a high reputation and good relations are his characteristics of strength and bravery. If it were not for his ability to be able to defeat enemies with strength, power, and bravery, there could have been no reputation established at all. Bottom line, there was an interplay of these themes in the entirety of the poem. It was his qualities of strength, courageousness, and bravery which brought him to the pinnacle of fame and respect. This respect is what earned him the loyalty of the authorities in the high ranks. In return, he gave his loyalty to these people as well. In the end, he earned the loyalty of the people when he ruled the kingdom, and he reciprocated such loyalty by being one of the greatest rulers the kingdom ever had.

Beowulf may be an old epic story, but it is still used today as a material in literature. Its purpose is to let the world know how important are the values depicted in the poem. It still serves as a lesson to each and every one, especially the youth that loyalty and good deeds are still among those values that people should have. The poem emancipates the youth to become stronger and braver to be able to defeat the monster which is, in its literal sense, the problems in life.

We are in the modern world, some term it as the digital world even. It is undeniable that as technology upgrades, more and more problems arise. What is there to be the consequence, anyway, for an emerging age? Thus, it would suffice to say that sometimes, we all have to go back to the simplicity of it all. This simplicity would be that of the simple values that our elders have taught us when we were younger. Values that would justify our sense of humanity, our reason for existence. Relatively, values that were portrayed in the epic poem ‘Beowulf’ – to be strong, courageous, respected, and loyal.

American Culture (Essay Sample)

American Culture

American culture is in all dimensions western and it has been influenced and derived from diverse ethnic communities which inhabit the land. The diverse ethnic communities have contributed to a distinctive flavor of their culture. Initially, native Americans inhabited the land before European powers came to colonize their land and eventually took it over. Over they course of history, the colonial culture blended with Native American culture and other immigrants culture to create the American culture. Through centuries of coexistence with people from all over the world American culture has continuously been evolving to match the changing times. Notably, the main cultures inhabiting the land are the Native Americans, Latin Americans, Africans and Asians.

Language is a key element in describing a culture. Whilst in America almost 300 languages are spoken, English is the most widely used language. According to (Zimmermann, 2017), over 90% of Americans speak or understand some little bit of English in which they can express themselves or communicate with other people. Whilst there is no official language in the United States, some states like Hawaii have two official languages; Hawaiian and English. However, due to large numbers of English speakers, English has become de facto language of communication. Other languages spoken in America include Germany, Arabic, French, Italian, Hindi, Chinese among others. These languages come with slight variation of the American culture which is a slight mixture of their native culture with American culture. Their accent is also noticeable while they speak English and other aspects of how they live is conspicuous. American people also have various accents of their respective states which partly stems from the way of living in those respective states. Over the years, English has evolved to become the present day American English which is slightly different from British English in spellings and pronunciation. However, American English has transcended its borders and it is at par with British English in number of users.

Religious freedom is enshrined in American constitution and it has led to diverse religions inhabiting the land. People with no religious affiliations also have a significant number and they show the inclusivity of American culture and tolerance to religion or lack of it thereof. According to (Isaac, Kloppenberg, O’Brien, & Ratner-Rosenhagen, 2016) they take up between a quarter and a fifth of the population and they are also protected by the constitution. Nearly all religions are practiced on American soil and they are part of a bigger American community that transcends religious differences. America prohibits discrimination against one’s religion and encourages tolerance and that has helped create a more closely knit American people despite religious differences. However, in the recent past since the last general elections, religious differences have started dividing the nation.

American dressing style is unique in many ways. Americans are mostly associated with jeans, sneakers, baseball caps, cowboy hats and boots. Dressing is mostly determined by age, occupation, religious and ethnic backgrounds of the people. Even in the western sense, American stand out even in the way they tie their ties. Sneakers which have been popularized by NBA are also a common piece of clothing associated with the Americans. Baseball, which is a sport that originated in the land, has also birthed a new trend of baseball caps and despite being worn the world over, they can be traced to have originated in United states. Some few clothing lines have been born in America and they have transcended their boundaries and gave the world a taste of American culture. Such are, Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein, Michael Kors etc. these dressing trends and fashion are influenced by celebrities and the media and thus lately the unique dressing of Americans has been replaced by diverse styles and keep changing rapidly.

American food is influenced by European and native American cuisines. Today there are number of foods associated with Americans and their culture. They include hamburgers, hot dogs, potato chips, macaroni and cheese, and meat loaf. These foods are mainly carbohydrates and that can help explain why the country struggles with obesity. It has even influenced the Pacific islanders who are the world’s fattest nations for consuming American diet (CommonWealth Secretariat, 2011). Beverages mainly include coffee and tea for hot drinks. Soft drinks are represented by coca cola products which is born in America and Pepsi drinks. American cuisine has been summarized by a phrase ‘as American as apple pie’ which shows their distinctive authentic American food. Americans have also created and exported jerky and dried meats which are served as snacks. The style of cooking and main menu types is also on regions within America. Southern style cooking mainly features chicken, collard greens, black-eyed peas and corn bread which is often known as “American Comfort Food.” Texas and southwest have a blend of Spanish and American cuisines which includes items such as chili and burritos.

Sports is a main integral part of American culture. Americans love sports and their support for favorite teams and players has cemented their love for sports. Basketball, baseball, athletics, football are some of the sports that Americans love. In the recent past, football has become widely popular and toppled baseball as the main American sport (Nauright & Parrish, 2012). The aforementioned games other than athletics are considered to be ‘American sports’ and they have been an important part of culture. They also influence their fashion, and music trends.

American art has made a lasting impression on the world stage. It is mainly embedded in media which has developed into a lucrative industry consumed and envied all over the world. United states alone produce a third of world wide media and entertainment products. The TV industry has been vibrant and a key industry in promoting American culture within and without their borders. Hollywood, centered in California has been a popular producer of movies and tv shows with worldwide viewership and with a unique and rich depiction of American culture. American art culture goes beyond movies and tv shows to encompass theatrical history. Music has also cemented a key part of American culture though it is very diverse. Some genres like hip hop have been birthed in America and they have world wide presence. Other genres common with American people are blues, jazz, gospel, country and western, bluegrass, rock ‘n’ roll among others.

American people have various holidays which celebrate various historical events. July 4th, they celebrate independence typically be setting off fireworks. A Memorial Day set on last Monday in may is for fallen heroes in military service. The country’s workforce celebrates on Labor Day set on first Monday in September. Veterans day is marked on November 11 and contributions of civil rights leader King Jr. are remembered on third Monday in January. Thanksgiving falls on fourth Thursday of November shortly after Halloween which is celebrated on 31st October. Americans also inaugurate their presidents on January 20th and it is also marked as an important date in American calendar.

Concisely, American culture is rich and unique. It has gone beyond their borders and influenced other cultures all over the world. The culture continually evolves but it remains unique. The afore-described elements show the various elements that are distinctively American.

References

  • CommonWealth Secretariat. (2011). Commonwealth Health Ministers’ Update 2011. CommonWealth Secretariat.
  • Isaac, J., Kloppenberg, J. T., O’Brien, M., & Ratner-Rosenhagen, J. (2016). The Worlds of American Intellectual History. Oxford University Press.
  • Nauright, J., & Parrish, C. (2012). Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
  • Zimmermann, K. A. (2017, July 13). American Culture: Traditions and Customs of the United States. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com: https://www.livescience.com/28945-american-culture.html

Amy Tan, Mother Tongue (Essay Sample)

Amy Tan “Mother Tongue”

Language forms our identity because it defines who we are based on how we interact with people. Unfortunately, some people use language to gauge our levels of intelligence. Many people are discriminated based on how they express themselves, especially if they cannot speak English fluently. In an article titled “Mother Tongue” by Amy Tan, she talks about her experiences as an immigrant, highlighting how people who speak broken English are unconsciously categorized by those who speak English fluently.

Amy’s article shows how challenging it is to be raised by a parent who speaks limited English because one can easily face discrimination. Tan, being a fiction author, recalls the experiences that helped her identify different types of English. She also explores the role played by her mother in shaping her language that later even influenced her career choice.

Amy highlights several situations portraying how discrimination occurs when the other person cannot understand broken English. She quotes examples of broken English her family used to communicate. Having been raised by her mother, Amy realized how one’s perception of the world is based on the type of language taught at home. Tan noticed how people perceive others differently based on the language used.

The author was fascinated by language which became part of her daily experience as a writer. Tan keenly observed the different types of English in several instances like when giving a talk about her book and her mother was part of her audience; she realizes that she been using academic language from the book which is different from the language they used at home. She notices the different types of English when her mother says “not waste money that way”; this is an example of broken English she was used to at home. Her mother’s English differs from her general understanding of English.

Even though her mother spoke broken English, this did not reflect her level of intelligence; her mother was perceived to have limited ideas by people who interacted with her. When Amy was young, she acted like her mother for people to take her seriously. Her mother knew about stocks, meaning that she was intelligent to know how to invest. Amy recalls the time when her mother tried to inform the doctor that she had lost the CAT scan results. The doctor ignored her mother because he could not understand her English. The doctor only took the initiative to assist her mother after Amy talked to him using fluent English; the doctor apologized and solved the problem.

Tan noted with a concern that people do not take other people seriously because of their language. According to Tan, immigrant families are judged based on how well they speak English. She even thinks that her family language could have limited her from accessing several opportunities. Tan wondered why Asian students performed better in math tests than in language test. She further questions whether other Asian students felt discouraged from learning foreign languages and as a result, focus more on math and science. She also recalls having changed her major from pre-med to English to become a freelance writer. Even though her boss discouraged that she could not become a good writer, she later became one of the best fiction writers. Amy is happy to have followed her dreams instead of feeling intimidated by other people.

People will always be judgmental, according to Tan; many people think that speaking broken English means not being intelligent. At times people make mistakes when pronouncing certain words, this does not make them less intelligent or lack proper education. Having to deal with stockbrokers and other important clients made Tan realize how intelligent her mother is.

In her article, Tan points out that the language spoken among immigrant families plays an important role in shaping the language their children will adopt; this will greatly affect their children’s lives in future. Speaking a different language with her mother affected her normal conversations and almost limited her opportunities.

Amy’s article highlights how people who use English as a second language face prejudice; they have to find means to cope with several situations. Mrs. Tan was discriminated even by her neurologist who is supposed to be listening keenly to patient despite the language barrier. Amy reveals some of her language experiences and also provides readers with solutions to their language problems that limited her mother, and what she had to do for people to listen to her mothers’ pleas.

She proved how her mother encountered a different kind of attitude when she tried to communicate with other people. Tan was always there to mediate when the stockbroker delayed with her mothers’ cheque and when the CAT scan could not be traced. She was always there for her mother to mediate in all the situations to enable other people to understand what her mother was trying to convey. Amy provides many experiences immigrant families face where sometimes one has to become a spokesperson for other family members.

The idea that other people perceive those with limited English to be uneducated is a common phenomenon. Unconsciously, people categorize other by the way they speak English. Amy Tans’ Mother Tongue provides insights, telling readers not to be too judgmental. The article reminds us of the many times when we look down upon people because they cannot express their ideas due to their limited language skills.

The author informs readers to learn to respect people even if they cannot express themselves properly and avoid criticizing people who cannot speak English fluently. The article Mother Tongue inspires readers to try to be more helpful and encourage those who do not speak proper language instead of labeling them.

Through the article, readers are informed about the many challenges facing immigrants including being mistreated because of their limited language skills. It is assumed that migrants are uneducated; this is not true because Amy points out that Asian students excel in math and science as compared to English. All in all, Tan believes that limited English means limited opportunities, especially for immigrants.

Child Abuse (Essay Sample)

Child Abuse

Child abuse is the endangerment of a child in the form of physical, sexual, emotional negative impact or neglect inflicted on the child by another person typically, a caregiver. It is a global issue which threatens the future of our race and by extension the planet. Children are the future and each person bears a responsibility to care for them to ensure the continuity of humanity. These statistics cast a shadow on the optimism of our race and a threat to any child anywhere on the planet should be a concern to everyone. Prompt interventions must be instituted to protect the most vulnerable members of the society. Child abuse is primarily anchored on sexual, emotional, physical and neglect perspectives and this article explores these parameters in depth.

Physical abuse

Physical child abuse is any non-accidental physical injury of a child. The perpetrator intentionally hurts the child to inflict pain. Physical abuse in some cases causes the death of the child or permanent physical and mental disabilities. In some cases, physical child abuse is legal and perpetrators are encouraged and protected by the law. Typically, this is the shocking picture in some countries where corporal punishment in schools is lawful and in extreme cases female genital mutilation (FGM) in the name of culture. These heinous acts leave permanent scars on the victims who are more likely to become defiant or drug abusers in their later lives. Children who experience child abuse are nine times more likely to engage in criminal activities whilst at least two-thirds of people under treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children. In some cases, the perpetrators are parents or close relatives who take advantage of the children’s innocence. The society and environment also stack the odds against the children because physical abuse can be perpetrated by governments, criminals, friends etc. Retrogressive cultural values have further engrained the problem into the societal fabric. To stamp out physical child abuse, proper structural framework especially policing should be instituted and implemented to safeguard the future of children in these societies.

Emotional abuse

Children emotional abuse is subjecting the children to behave or elements that are meant to result in psychological trauma including anxiety, chronic depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. Children are adversely affected by these elements, especially their mental and physical development. Children often exposed to psychological trauma affect their self-worth and esteem leading to antisocial and often violent behavior. Emotional abuse is often done by the caregivers. For example, shouting to children affects their cognitive development and other minor injurious statements hurled to children substantiate to emotional abuse. Children can often do mistakes and there are better ways of helping them rather than subjecting them to emotional abuses. It is important they learn that there are consequences for their actions and not necessarily violence or emotional trauma. Children brains and cognitive ability is not strong enough to digest emotional abuse they encounter and most of them eventually become depressed or suffer a mental breakdown. Children must be protected against emotional abuse and caregivers ought to look out for any signs of emotional abuse in their children.

Neglect

Children are unable to survive on their own. Children lacking proper and sufficient access to health care, supervision, clothing, nutrition, housing, and safety stand a higher chance of impaired physical and emotional development. These factors constitute neglect and it is a serious form of child abuse as it exposes them to any other form of child abuse. Their physical, emotional, social, educational and safety needs are paramount and deprivation of any of them amounts to neglect whether intentional or unintentional. Not only are children the most vulnerable members of the society, but also the most vulnerable to abrasive edges of the society. Thus, criminal gangs prey on them to make money. All over the world, there are children who have been abandoned and they struggle to live by doing the unthinkable i.e. scrapping for food in waste bins. Children should be protected against this as neglect comes with the uncertainty of their futures. Often, neglected children are forced to fend for themselves where they are easily exploited by immoral people seeking to take advantage of them. They are recruited into prostitution and forced to do manual work in a bid to earn a living. Some are even trafficked and exploited in other parts of the world. Child neglect also exposes children to physical and emotional abuse because they are often out of reach of protection by caregivers or governments.

Sexual abuse

Globally, there are some children who have been shackled in the chains of sexual abuse. This form of abuse can even come from closest members of the family. Trafficked children are often recruited in prostitution rings and sexually exploited for the benefit of the perpetrators. Such children cannot access proper basic needs for their physical and cognitive development like playtime and education. The environment under which they operate they risk contracting diseases and suffering physical and emotional abuses. The plight has been highlighted by various children protection agencies but the steps taken have not stamped out this problem. Children who have suffered sexual abuse carry this trauma in their later lives where they still suffer the effects of the terrible ordeals they encountered. Children often cling to their caregivers when they are sexually abused, but in some cases, the perpetrators are often the closest family members.
In conclusion, child abuse is a collective societal problem that requires a multifaceted approach to address. The aforementioned forms of child abuse highlight some of the ways children are exploited and the adverse effects they suffer in the short and long terms. Child abuse is also a subjective term in many cultures which perceive some of the abuses as corrective or necessary means of parenting. Child abuse robs children their right of being children. It also causes more societal problems like crime, drug abuse, and poor human capital development. Thus, the society must come together to address this issue in the interest of the children and its welfare since some of its problems are hinged on the issue.

Atomic Bombs (Essay Sample)

Atomic Bombs

There are several weapons that are used by soldiers to fight. The most commonly used weapon is the AK 47 riffle. All soldiers are trained to use this weapon because it can be carried easily during the war. Countries have fought over several things. It may be to become dominant, to acquire and control resources or to make sure that the country becomes a superpower. These driving factors have made them develop various ways and weapons that could Essen their war. Countries like the United States of America and Japan have gone ahead to make nuclear bombs and atomic bombs that could easily kill everyone. These weapons have a great impact since it can destroy the whole nation or even a region depending on the size. This makes atomic bombs more dangerous than any the weapons. Atomic bombs are weapons that use nuclear reactors. The first atomic bombs were first developed by the scientist during the world war two. Since then it has been used twice in the world. The United States and Japan are the only ones who have used atomic bombs.

Atomic bombs have a huge impact on the body of human beings. It is advisable that it should not be used again because of the negative results. Nuclear scientists made a discovery about the atomic bombs in the year 1938. It was after the discovery of nuclear fission. Radioactive materials contain atoms; these atoms split into lighter atoms which later release nuclear energy. These discoveries led to the development of huge nuclear bombs as well as the atomic bombs. Atomic bombs get their energy from nuclear reactors and the process of nuclear fission. This essay seeks to describe the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the cold war, crisis in Cuba and the countries that have illegal nuclear bombs

Nagasaki and Hiroshima Bombing

At Los Alamos, scientists developed two different bombs in the year 1945. Еhe first is the uranium-based design and the second one is known as the plutonium-based weapon. In other words, it was called ‘the fat man.’ Japan and the United States continued to fight in the Pacific even when the war in Europe had ended. In the late July, the United States president who was called Harry Truman gave a delectation that Оapan should surrender fighting. However, there was still a misunderstanding so there was no agreement. Due to the disagreement, the United States dropped its first atomic bomb. The bomb came from a bomb plane known as Enola Gay. The atomic bomb descended at the heart of Hiroshima and made a great impact. It was recorded that over eighty thousand people died instantly while the other ten thousand died due to the exposure of the radiation. Atomic has proved to have great damage. The most irritating part is when the innocent people perished instantly while the remaining was affected by the radiation. Having such an impact on the human race is really hurting. However, Japanese did not surrender. This made the United States drop another bomb that killed over forty thousand citizens in Nagasaki. The aim of the United States was to drop it in kokura but it landed in Nagasaki. Japan had various plants in the city and the smoke above made the sky not clear. However, due to the impact, the president of Japan decided to give up and surrender.

Cold War

In the recent years, the United States was the only state that had nucleus weapon at that time. Other countries lacked the materials and human resource to help in the manufacture of nuclear bombs. However, years went by and USSR obtained their spies on the ground and later they obtained the blueprint that was used to make the bombs. In the year 1949, Russia tested the atomic bombs. As a result, the United States decided to respond by making a thermonuclear weapon that was much greater. The cold war had started and it was a pleasure to several countries since they had obtained the skills of making the bombs. Atomic bombs need a scientist who can make discoveries and then test. Having knowledgeable people on earth only made it easier because it was easy for them to make these nuclear bombs.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Years went by and counties as China and Britain developed their nuclear bombs, other countries also made thousands of warheads that they were to use in case of any war. As there were many observers on land at that time, the world appeared to be nuclear oriented; since each and every great country had developed the nuclear bombs. This made president John Kennedy to enactnavel blockhead in Cuba and he made it clear the United States for whichever reason was ready to use their nuclear missile. This was after, Russia installing nuclear missile on Cuba. War was avoided when the two mad an agreement. Russia decided to withdraw their nuclear missile as the United States promised not to invade Cuba.

Illegal Nuclear Weapon Countries

Some countries wanted to make their own nuclear bombs even after they had made agreements. India was the first nation to be out of the NPT test of a nuclear weapon. The rest of the countries which did not sign the NPT included Israel, Pakistan, and Israel. Israel is one of the countries know to have delay nuclear though it has not been confirmed. It is a country that many nations have feared due to the possibility of having great nuclear bombs. North Korea had signed the NPT but in the year 2006, it withdrew from the agreement. However, of late North Korea has been on standby frequently testing the nuclear bombs. It has posted a great threat since their president has always been driven by the fact that his country will soon become a superpower. Recently, NorthKorea tested two long ranged missiles. The test proved that it could reach the land in the United States. In November 2017, North Korea proved that that possess, hydrogen bomb which has a great impact on people’s lives. Atomic bombs pose a great danger to the human races. Countries should agree to sign up a new law that regulates the use of atomic bombs. Signs are clear that in case war arises, people will perish because of the impact.

Conclusion

Atomic bombs were first made by the scientist and it has grown in various countries. The United States first dropped the first nuclear bomb and the impact was evident enough. Lives were lost, various diseases arose. Atomic bombs clearly are a threat. Every country should consider having a nuclear bomb as their last priority. The countries in the world right now should not use nuclear bombs at any cost.

A Beautiful Mind (Essay Sample)

A Beautiful Mind

A beautiful mind is a 2001 movie based on John Nash’s life and on the novel of the same name by Sylvia Nasar. The drama movie was directed by Ron Hoard and the screenplay written by Akiva Goldsman. John Nash was born on 13th June, 1928 and died on 23rd May 2015. He was a brilliant mathematician who made axiomatic influences to partial difference equations, game theory, as well as differential geometry. He won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, the Abel Prize, and the John von Neumann Theory Prize.

The movie is about schizophrenia and how it affects how a person functions as well as the relationship with their family. Russell Crowe plays John Nash while Jennifer Connelly plays John’s wife, Alicia Larde. The family begins with Nash as he begins his profession at Princeton University as a mathematics graduate student (Thacker, 2013). He spends a lot of his time trying to discover an equation that would revolutionize mathematics. Halfway through the film, the audience that some of the places as well as conditions in the movie are just illusions in Nash’s “beautiful” mind. The essay will analyze schizophrenia in relation to the movie and John’s life.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious and severe mental disorder which affects how a person feels, thinks and behaves. It affects how about one percent of the population. It happens in late puberty or early adulthood, between 16 and 30. In most cases, the symptoms occur at a younger age for men than women (Parekh, 2017). It requires lifelong treatment and is only diagnosed after other illnesses have been ruled out. It is unusual for people to get schizophrenia after the age of 45 or below the age of 12. Schizophrenia is considered a group of disorders where the symptoms and causes alter between individuals.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Some patients suffering from schizophrenia may exhibit clear symptoms while others seem fine until they talk about what they are really thinking. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary depending on the individual (Tandon, 2013). For instance, John Nash experiences illusions in his mind and develops characters and events that only occur in his mind although he thinks they are real. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be classified as positive, negative, cognitive or emotional symptoms.

Positive symptoms are also called psychotic symptoms and include hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations usually include seeing or hearing non-existent things. For the person suffering from schizophrenia, these hallucinations occur in full force and seem like a normal experience (Parekh, 2017). Negative symptoms refer to the lack of ability or reduced the ability to function in a normal way such as a lack of motivation or lack of emotions. Cognitive symptoms affect the thought process and can either be positive or negative symptoms. Emotional signs are commonly negative symptoms for instance a lack of facial expressions.

The major symptoms are delusions, hallucinations especially seeing things and thought disorder. Others include cognitive difficulties, social withdrawal because they believe someone is trying to harm them, lack of motivation, and poor expression of emotions as well as unawareness of illness.  John Nash experienced hallucinations. One of the foremost imaginary characters that he developed was Charles Herman, who he imagined to be his roommate and a student of English Literature.

John Nash was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia now referred to as schizophrenia with paranoia by doctors is the most common example of this illness (Goldberg, 2017). Symptoms include delusions of persecution which mirror fathomless fear and anxiety and the inability to differentiate illusions from reality. Common examples include fear that a spouse is being unfaithful, a colleague is bent on trying to hurt you or that the government is spying on you. This can result in strained relationships with family and coworkers. John Nash was unable to tell his reality and a delusion apart and hence was misled. He was also anxious about the pain his friends and wife were going through because of his mental illness.

Additionally, John believes that he has been invited to the Pentagon to decode important US national security information. While there, he meets William Parcher, an agent in the Department of Defense who hires him to help fight against Cold War enemies. He is tasked with finding the code used by Russians in American newspapers in order to find where the bomb was located. Although Nash finds awareness of his prowess in serving his fellow citizens, the frightening delusion he experiences threatens it all. He devotes his life to a job which is only a creation of his mind.

Alicia watches her husband withdraw himself from the real world as he works with Agent Parcher. It becomes clear that Nash requires psychiatric care and he becomes even more withdrawn after being institutionalized, spending his time in his house and depending primarily on his wife to take care of him (Thacker, 2013). Alicia is strained as she has to take care of her husband and their newborn son. This depicts the struggle that this illness puts on the family and loved ones of the patient. Nash realizes that the medication he is taking alters his thinking abilities and he, therefore, stops taking it secretly.

Treatment for Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia necessitates lasting treatment even if signs have lessened. Medicines are usually administered together with psychosocial therapy although hospitalization may be required in some cases. Antipsychotic medications are commonly prescribed and are believed towards controlling signs by affecting the mind neurotransmitter dopamine. The aim of the treatment is to manage the signs and symptoms using the least doses possible. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs can also be used in the treatment. John Nash is treated using antipsychotic medication.

He experiences side effects such as sedation and sexual dysfunction. He is unable to think clearly or develop new areas of research hence decides to stop taking his medication. The serious side effects caused by the schizophrenia medication results in reluctance in taking the medication. As a result, the choice of drugs is affected and some patients may be put on injections instead of pills.  The second-generation antipsychotic medications are preferred as they have lower risks of serious side effects. Therapy for individuals is believed to help normalize how they think. It can also help them to deal with stress and identify symptoms of relapse in order to help manage the illness. In severe cases, hospitalization or electroconvulsive therapy may be useful.

Conclusion

The movie “A Beautiful Mind” brings to mind the need for self-awareness by normal people. It demonstrates the stress that people who suffer from schizophrenia as well as their loved ones go through. It follows the journey of John Nash as he takes his medication to suppress the symptoms of his condition. It is a journey from sanity to insanity and back to sanity culminating in the winning of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

References

  • Goldberg, J. (2017). What is Paranoid Schizophrenia? Retrieved from WebMD: www.webmd.com
  • Parekh, R. (2017). What is Schizophrenia? Retrieved from: www.psychiatry.org
  • Tandon, R. et al. (2013). Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5. Schizophrenia Research, 150(1), 3-10.
  • Thacker, M and Hughes, C. (2013). Movie Review: A Beautiful Mind. Mental Health Clinician, 2(8), 246-247.

Causes And Effects Of Earthquakes (Essay Sample)

Causes and Effects of Earthquakes

An earthquake also referred to as tremor or quake is the trembling that happens on the Earth’s surface as a result of sudden energy release to the Earth lithosphere, therefore, developing seismic waves. Earthquakes vary in sizes, for instance, there are quakes that are weak and are not enough to be felt by people or even destroy cities. However, there are large earthquakes that shake and cause ground displacement. Earthquakes can also result in landslides, property destruction as well as ground rapture. The largest earthquake is referred to as main-shock and is always followed by aftershocks that are experienced after the main shock. However, the world’s largest earthquake was experienced in the 1960 near Valdivia, South Chile and had around 9.5 magnitudes (Braitenberg and Rabinovich, 2017). This quake is also known as the ‘Great Chilean Earthquake’ that left nearly 2 million people homeless and thousands of buildings destroyed (Braitenberg and Rabinovich, 2017). Accordingly, it is imperative to understand both causes as well as impacts of earthquakes.

Causes of Earthquakes

Earthquakes happen as a result of various factors such as natural calamities and human activities. One of the natural causes of earthquakes is tectonic movements.

The Tectonic Movements

Tectonic movements are the disturbance that happens inside the earth. However, this movement creates forces that develop changes on the surface of the earth and therefore physical features like rift valleys, plateaus and mountains are created (Betbeder‐Matibet, 2008). Many of the disastrous earthquakes happen because of the tectonic forces that create pressure and tension where stress begins to accumulate inside the earth. To explain this, the Earth contains four main layers that comprise; the inner core, outer core, crest, as well as the mantle. The crust as well as the upper layer of mantle creates the thin skin of the planet. Furthermore, these layers of the Earth’s surface are made up of many puzzle-like pieces that are always in a constant slow motion and these puzzle pieces are referred to tectonics plates (Betbeder‐Matibet, 2008). The ends of these tectonic plates also referred as plate boundaries comprises numerous faults and many of the earthquakes happen on these faults because the plate boundaries are rough and get trapped while the tectonic plates keep moving. Moreover, when these edges unstuck from the faults they create an earthquake.

Volcanic Eruption

Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic eruptions. Volcanoes happen as a result of the magma movement. The magma produces forces on the rocks that crack the rock. Therefore, the magma streams in the cracks and builds up more pressure leading to more cracks resulting in small earthquakes. In addition, when the volcano plumbing system opens up and magma starts flowing out, continuous earthquake waves referred to as harmonic tremor are created (Betbeder‐Matibet, 2008). The volcanic tremor has been used as a signal to predict eruptions, for instance, the eruptions that happened in Mount St. Helens in 1980 (Betbeder‐Matibet, 2008).

Human Activities

Earthquakes are also caused by human activities particularly by the wastewater produced by the gas and oil drilling operations injected into the ground (Griggs, 2017). However, this activity does not result in huge quakes although they can cause big impacts. Research by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) about the induced earthquakes suggests that many of the earthquakes that happened in Oklahoma might have been as a result of wastewater from the oil industry (Griggs, 2017). Also, induced seismicity can happen through induction of carbon dioxide produced by the fossil fuel and other sources in the Earth’s crust. In addition, man-made earthquakes decrease and increase following the industrial activities which are hard to anticipate.

Effects of the Earthquakes

Ground Rapture and Landslides

Earthquakes bring about massive destruction such as ground rapture as well as landslides. However, the ground rapture is the primary impact caused by the large earthquakes. The severity of these effects relies on the complex combination of the quake magnitude, geomorphological conditions as well as the distance from epicenter which can reduce or maximize the wave propagation. Moreover, ground rupture and landslides are major risks to the engineering structures like nuclear power stations and dams. For example, in 1970, in the Coast of Peru, an earthquake caused a landslide that started 80 miles far from the quake (Zeilinga et al., 2011). This slide was estimated to be nearly 30 meters and killed more than 18,000 individuals (Zeilinga et al., 2011).

Death and Injuries

Moreover, many of the earthquakes are death related since they result in construction collapse which leads to deaths of many people. For instance, in southern Italy, around 100,000 individuals died in 1909 due to earthquake which happened in this area (Zeilinga et al., 2011). Many of this people die because of the collapsible structures and others escape this event in severe injuries. Yet, even a minor shaking can result in thousands of casualties whenever a building collapses and also lead to depression and mental consequences to survivors (Zeilinga et al., 2011). The level of an earthquake damage relies on the duration and amplitude of the shaking. Therefore, when the amplitude is large, it results in large earthquakes.

Tsunamis

Tsunami is another effect brought by the earthquakes. Tsunamis are harbor waves that happen as a result of the vertical offset of the ocean floor caused by volcanic deformation and earthquakes. Sometimes tsunamis rise to nearly 20-25 meters and cause massive damages to people and properties especially in coastal regions (Zeilinga et al., 2011). In 1896 in Japanese, an earthquake generated a tsunami which destroyed the shore with waves rising up to 100 feet and 22,000 people died (Zeilinga et al., 2011).  When an earthquake occurs, the sudden shaking changes the ocean’s elevation then initiating the water waves to travel outside the seafloor region. Large waves caused by earthquakes can overrun a coastal region within minutes and also flow in thousands of kilometers in an open ocean causing massive destructions.

Soil Liquefaction

Earthquakes are suggested to result in soil liquefaction (Zeilinga et al., 2011). This means that, when ground shaking happens, water-saturated materials, for example, the sand loses their strength and turns from solid to liquid. Soil liquefaction results in rigid structures sinking or tilting. For instance, in 1964, soil liquefaction made many buildings to sink and collapse in Alaska earthquake (Zeilinga et al., 2011).Also; other things relying on this soil for support can tilt and collapse.

Conclusion

Earthquake is a sudden vibration and shaking of the surface of the earth which is caused by the underground movement by volcanic activity or movement of tectonic plates. Scientists use seismographs to record earthquakes. However, earthquakes cannot be detected and whenever they occur, they can cause massive damages to property and even kill people. Moreover, earthquakes can be caused by human activities particularly the wastewater produced by the gas and oil drilling operations injected into the ground. Earthquakes lead to massive destruction such as ground rapture as well as landslides. It is suggested that there are many deaths as well as severe injuries that happen as a result of earthquakes in many countries.

References

  • Betbeder‐Matibet, J. (2008). Causes of Earthquakes. Seismic Engineering, 5-53.
  • Braitenberg, C., & Rabinovich, A. B. (2017). The Chile-2015 (Illapel) Earthquake and Tsunami.
  • Griggs M. B, 2017. Man-made earthquakes will continue to shake the country. Retrieved from: https://www.popsci.com/2017-earthquake-damage-forecast
  • Zeilinga, B. J., Sanders, D. T., & Ballard, R. D. (2011). Volcanoes in Human History: The Far-Reaching Effects of Major Eruptions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Causes Of American Revolution (Essay Sample)

Causes of American Revolution

Our class teacher used to give us various stories about the past. Old stories concerning life and how we came into existence were majorly narrated to us. One time he gave a brief history about America for father. One student asked a question, why did our fore father rebel and help revolution in America yet we are all human beings. After the teacher giving the correct answer I came to realize that indeed there are several aspects that the founding fathers saw that made them rebel. American Revolution is not just for academic purposes but one should understand that, it is that revolution that gave birth to the new, modern America of today. The revolution was mainly by rebelling the British colonies and British administration. It started when the British government came with certain regulations which did not favor the Americans. Initially the founding fathers were actually contented with the British colonies but what transpired to the revolution is the repeated refusal of the American citizens representing any American colony, harsh taxes imposed, and the governing rule which became a major reason for revolution. However there are also certain causes that transpired to the rebellion, but majorly the British administration were mean and self-centered. This essay ‘the causes of revolution in America’ seeks to describe the harsh imposition of taxes, the restriction and freedom of location, government control, corruption and the criminal injustices and the justice system.

Harsh Taxation

One of the major causes that led our founding fathers to rebel the British administration is the imposition of harsh tax on commodities such as tea and stamps without any representation of their own American citizen in parliament (History, 2017). For many years before revolution began, the British parliament passed harsh taxation laws without the consent of the Americans. This imposition of taxes were majorly because the British government had full control of America and the people did not have anyone to represent them during discussion and passage of the parliament rules and laws. For instance, the British parliament in 1773 passed the tea act that saw the Americans pay an additional tax on their own tea. At the time the tea taxation was not high, the colonialists did not argue about taxation but after the parliament passed the laws, the Americans felt a great burden. This created frustration to the Americans that led to several shipments being damped in Boston harbor. This is a clear representation of how the British rule in taxation was extremely harsh to Americans. Secondly the declaratory act that was passed by the Great Britain led to the rebellion. The act gave the British power and full authority of making the laws on taxation in any case whatsoever without involvement of the Americans. This declaration act made the American feel their rights as not being respected by the British administration. The feeling of oppression and the inability to control anything transpired to the revolution which saw the Americans fight and resist the British.  Another harsh taxation is the stamp act.  In 1765, the stamp act was passed by the British parliament. The act saw every paper document being taxed for instance, newspapers, wills, and legal documents including playing cards. We all know paper is a daily commodity and with harsh taxation, the British showed full control of any American’s life. This showed injustice and led to the revolution in America. As more laws on taxation grew up, the founding fathers resisted and rebel by fighting the British government that led to the revolution in America.

Restriction of Location and Freedom

The geographical location and boundaries between the British and Americans also made the founding fathers rebel. The Great Britain almost created a situation where to gain independence was indeed hard to overcome by any means to the Americans. The Great Britain had strong independent streak, which saw them gain access to opportunities and freedom. The proclamation played a vital role in 1763. As the French and Indian war ended, the famous king George made a decree that prohibited further colonization in the west in the Appalachians Mountain. His intention was to normalize the relationship with the Native Americans. A good number of American settlers had received land grants or made purchase of land. This decree was however ignored by the sellers as they moved beyond ‘the proclamation line’ after there was much lobbying. The freedom defended by white American caused the revolution in America (Taylor, 2016).

The Government Control

The presence and existence of British legislature meant that the colonialists were independent of their own government. The British government was allowed to pass crucial laws, organize troops and mostly levy tax. Overtime the powers possessed by British government became rights to the Americans after great struggle in trying to fit in the British rule. The reining government of the Great Britain had powers to curtail any newly elected bodies. This allowed the British government to have full authority during legislation while the colonialists less power over the reigning British empire. It is this small rebellious body that gave rise to the American leaders and the heroic struggle for the sake of liberty from the British governance saw them victorious (Wood, 2003).

Corruption and Control of British Government

The British government gave more authority to the British officials that led to the spread of corruption. ‘Writs of assistance’ was one of the issues that led to rebellion. The British soldiers were given authority to search, inspect and size any property or trade commodity they deemed illegal or maybe the goods are smuggled (Wallace, 2014). The authority gave them ability to entire warehouses, ships and private homes for unnecessary search. By doing this, some abused the power to involve corruption. The fourth amendment in the constitution was changed because James Otis a Boston lawyer, who fought for the American right and managed to defeat the inflamed level of resilience by the British. The third amendment allowed the British soldiers to be housed by colonialists. This infuriated the Americans since some abused them and it was costly to them. All this led to various resistances and was among causes of American Revolution.

The criminal justice system

Trade and power was under the control of the British government, due to these powers the Justice system was crooked since people were imprisoned over fighting their own rights. Alexander MacDougall was imprisoned for libel because his work ‘to the betrayed inhabitants of city and new York colony ‘was published. The Boston massacre also contributed to the injustices in America. To make issues worse, trials were replaced by punishment and verdict offered down to the British judges. This made many fair trials to be completely impossible. These injustices by the British made the colonists to rebel and became one the causes of revolution.

Conclusion

The revolution in America was greatly influenced by several key issues. Although other countries went through the same colonialism by British but in America the fight was greatly influenced by the inability to have power over state and trade. The new modern America is as a result of rebellion by the American founding father. Our attribute goes for those who managed to conquer the British and managed to give birth to new leaders and presidents in America

Reference

  • Taylor A. (2016). American Revolution, Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/11/books/review/alan-taylor-american-revolutions.html
  • Wood G. (2003). The American Revolution, Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/jan/19/historybooks.highereducation1
  • History (2017). American Revolution history, Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/american-revolution-history
  • Wallace M. (2014). American Revolution, Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/American-Revolution

Affirmative Action (Essay Sample)

Affirmative Action

Many people dream of living in America to achieve the American dream because America is perceived to be the land of opportunities. However, equality is one of the most challenging factors limiting people from access basic services like education. Ethnic minority groups face inequality, limiting their ability to access such services as education. Affirmative action is one of the government strategies to promote equality among different nationalities and inspire freedom and diversity.

For years, the negative effects of Affirmative Action policies have seen several cases brought to court to determine the true meaning of equality. Through affirmative action, the government believed that everyone would access equal opportunities. Several institutions, especially colleges and universities have taken a big leap in addressing equality within the learning institutions. Currently, ethnic minority groups can access many learning institutions thanks to the affirmative action policies.

Affirmative action is viewed to be ineffective in addressing equality as white students oppose affirmative action because it discourages hard-working students and it is unfair to the students who work hard to get good grades. While other students support affirmative action because through such policies, ethnic minorities have achieved their career dreams. The Fisher V. University of Texas case is an example of several cases seeking to oppose affirmative action. In the case, the plaintiff argues that affirmative action stigmatizes recipients, making them feel less deserving and less qualified.

Affirmative action policies were established to integrate all ethnic minority groups within the various institutions. Many people support the affirmative action because they believe everyone deserves to be treated fairly. However, a majority of the white population opposes this policy because they believe that it is a reverse form of discrimination.

The Supreme Court ruling about race being a factor to consider when universities admit students has been objected by white students. For them, such ruling violates the constitutional rights which protect people against discrimination. Affirmative action is considered to be unconstitutional because it discriminates white students.

To justify their arguments, opponents of affirmative action gave an example where two students, one white and the other being black, grew up as good friends, attending the same school and the same social clubs. The white student manages to get a better score as compared to the black student. If the white student is admitted to the same college as the black student who did not meet the criteria to be enrolled in this college, the white student will feel discouraged by the learning process. Therefore, college admission that considers students based on race discourages a student from learning.

It is a fact that the ethnic minorities have been discriminated for years. The ethnic minority groups, especially the black community, have not been treated the same as white people. Solving inequality using affirmative action is not the best solution because giving preferential treatment to an ethnic minority student in college discriminates white students. That opposing affirmative action believes that these policies undermine the minority groups, making them feel less capable and inferior. Affirmative action makes them feel they are not capable of working hard to achieve good grades.

To be accepted in any college means that students need to work hard and earn this privilege. Going to college is a long journey that starts from childhood; it is about school work, homework, making sacrifices to go to the best college finally, and this is a rite of passage many students look forward to. It has not been easy for other students to see ethnic minority students accepted in college based on their race. For them, giving minority group’s preferences over white students is an unfair practice.

In the recent case opposing affirmative action, Abigail Fisher believed that affirmative action policies stigmatize students. Fisher argued out her case based on her experience as a white student. Fischer failed to qualify for admission at the University of Texas, but other ethnic minorities whom she believed did not qualify were admitted. Fischer argues that the decision by universities and the colleges to admit students based on race violate the 14th amendment of the Equal Protection Clause. According to Fischer, affirmative action is likely to cause tension among different ethnic groups.

Proponents of affirmative action always point out that the social stigma directed towards ethnic minorities is the worst form of discrimination as compared to affirmative action. They believe that affirmative action policies have opened up several opportunities for every student minimizing social stigma. Affirmative action for them is the best approach to promote diversity, especially within the learning institutions. By doing so, these institutions create tolerance because students are exposed to a variety of cultures and ideas.

It is a fact that Affirmative action policies have assisted children from disadvantaged backgrounds to access learning opportunities that they could only dream of achieving, giving an equal playing field. However, not everyone supports affirmative action policies. Opponents of affirmative action believe that affirmative action has not eliminated racism or discrimination; ethnic minorities still experience discrimination in other forms. These policies give the minority groups unearned advantage over other groups of individuals. Some of these ethnic minority groups access opportunities they do not deserve just to fulfill the affirmative action requirements.

When admitting students, several factors like hard work, good grades, and students’ determination need to be the basis of admission, but not their race. The affirmative action does not promote these virtues. Instead, it increases discrimination. Ethnic minorities experience discrimination every day, and experts emphasize on comprehensive policies that address discrimination from a wider perspective. For years, ethnic minority groups struggle to find decent work as compared to whites, even though they are well educated and meet all the criteria required for the job. Based on these facts, affirmative action has not fulfilled its goals, which are to provide equal opportunities, especially among the underprivileged minorities. Instead, affirmative action policies have resulted in irrational decision making based on ethnicity. Even though the government still supports affirmative action affirmative action, this is not the best way to promote diversity that is why the debate continues how as America society can truly promote equality.

Bless Me, Ultima (Essay Sample)

Bless Me, Ultima

When I was young, I used to read various novels written by various people. Up to now, the urge to continue reading is in me because of the structure of the novel, the themes in the novel as well as the symbolic features. In the recent years, a research was conducted and it was discovered that Germany produces a huger number of novels than the Arabian countries. This discovery shows that novels are still in demand. However, the old-written novels have stacked in peoples mind. Such a novel is one called ‘Bless Me, Ultima’ written by Anaya Rudolf.

Since its publication in the year 1972, it has been widely read especially in Chicago. Teachers across high school level, college level, and university level have adopted it to become one of their favorite novels for students. Rudolf started to write the novel in the year in 1963, since then it was not published because of the combination of the two language English and Spanish. However, at some point, it was awarded as the best in the national literary. It was this point when it was published and then the autobiography was produced later. ‘Bless me, Ultima’ leaves the reader with two conclusions: the first is that Ultima is a witch and works for the devil himself. The second is that Ultima is a person who walks on earth performing miracles through the use of her magic that saves people’s lives.

Everybody in the novel who hears the word ‘witch’ clearly thinks of the works of the devil. However, it is not the case because people have judged different actions and people; later on, they find that they are wrong. Both tomorrow’s daughter and Ultima use magic and power which are the same, but they use their powers in different ways. The two have gone ahead to perform the same magic and has worked. I think they are the same since the power and magic are sought of similar. The only difference is that the sister uses her power to destroy and kill while Ultima uses her powers to save lives. This essay seeks to discuss the plot of the novel, characters as well as the content of the novel.

Plot

‘Bless Me, Ultima’ reveals a story of a boy who is seven years old and a woman called Ultima. The boy is called Antonio and the woman is a healer. The content of the book is developed in the early forties in the New Mexico while the world is facing different problems; for instance, war. Little Antonio was facing ambiguous scenes and scenarios around him. But since the healer came in the area, his life has changed. The woman possessed supernatural abilities that she uses to help people.The woman inspires Antonio to accept the environment around him. Since her arrival, the boy stated view the world from a different angle. His life changes gradually and later on he gives attribute to the woman because of the presence of the woman.However, the boy is Rudolf himself. The boy was part of the cultural conflict in the area. He knew very well how cowboy and farmers could not always agree on one thing. He also knew how the English speakers could talk ill of the Spanish speakers. His father was a cowboy while his mother was from the farmer’s family. Having a good experience helped him discover the difference.

Characters

The novel is very large as it involves various characters. These characters are mainly close people and family members including, his brother, sister, grandfathers, the priest and war veteran. However, there are several others but in this are just but main characters that played a critical part in the novel. Antonio Marez is the main character. He is a boy that thinks about very many thinks. He is not sure whether pagan or Christian is of impotence. But when Ultima comes in his life, he changes his perception and way of life. The secondary characters are MariaMarez and Gabriel Marez who were his parents. All they want is a good life for the little boy. However, it becomes hard since having his father is a person who has succeeds in farming while his mother is a Catholic member. Her mother wants him to become a priest but his father strongly opposes. This creates a misunderstanding between them. The third and important character is the healer, Ultima. She comes in as hope and actually helps shape the destiny of the young boy. Ultima possessed powers that people believed to have come from her ancestors. However as others see that she is a mysterious woman, the fact remains she is kind and wise. Some people develop critical fear toward her but Antonio is not afraid of her words. All in all, she tries to make the boy be a self in depending in terms of decision making.

The content

The content of the novel generally highlights how the boy struggles to choose between religion and other things. Several things happened to him and such circumstances make him be on across the road. Anaya has used dreams to describe how the boy had conflict in his mind on making a decision. The dreams are vivid enough to make the boy think critically about his life. However, the dreams not only make him think but also act like a shadow that reveals his future. Having several factors in his life that show how his future was encouraged him not to give up on anything. There are several events in his life that Meade he change. The first event is the death of Lupito and Florence. Particularly the death of Lupito caught his attention since he was right there when Lupito died. Such events led him to decide that he is going to make changes in his life. , the experience in Golden Carp also shaped his life in terms airing new faith and new belief. The other event that changed his life was when he saw Ultima perform a magic that lifted the curse from Uncle Lucas. Finally, Ultima’s death proved to him that life is precious. Such vent made him completely change for the better. This entire event made him realize the potential that he posed.

‘Bless Me, Ultima’ is a great novel that has shown various people coming up with the different perception of life. The book is composed of various aspects of life; For instance, religion, family friends among others. Ultima brings hope and is significance since she proves to the boy that there is hope when you believe. She performed various magic that proved she saved lives. Although people make a judgment, she remains an outstanding person that aid people in their problems.